Sunday, April 16, 2017


Dear Friends,

This is a Special issue of my blog, our first meeting with VITALII KIRKINSKI, Russian LENR scientist. We will hear more about him, from him. I hope.

This meeting is intended as an Easter present for the PdD faithful.
This author likes PdD hot (600 C) and...knows a lot!


My ideology is based, before anything else, on our theoretical works so please let's take a look to the list of our publications, attached below. I will shortly review the most important achievements regarding theory.

We have elaborated new-in-principle theoretical models for the mechanisms of the  nuclear reactions of fusion in metals based on the modelling the dynamism of interaction of the isotopes of hydrogen with the electronic layers of the metals.
It was created a set of original computer programs for the calculation of their velocity. There re given quantitative calculations of the velocity of nuclear reactions in the hydrides and deuterides of palladium, titanium, lanthanum,  α и γ iron in different conditions. ( Kirkinskii, Novikov 1999,2002, 203, 2004) At the international conference on Cold  Fusion in Missouri (USA) our approach was appreciated as one having a good perspective.
By the computer modelling of the behaviour of hydrogen atoms by the method of molecular dynamics in flux of free electrons in metals (Goncharov and Kirkinskii, 2007) we have shown that there is sufficient probability of the formation of the complexes of protons (deuterons) with electrons rotating around them on non-stationary, near to elliptical orbits with the aphelion smaller than 10-11 см and the perihelion of  ~ 10-12 cм. We have called such neutral complexes  continuously changing dimensions and form hydrogen mini-atoms.
Non-stationary mini-atoms can exist in a medium of free electrons or their flux for a short time, according to our evaluations not less than  10-15 seconds. They can mix freely in the crystalline structures of the metals and analogous to the neutrons can come near to the nuclei of hydrogen or of other elements up to distances, at which, due to the tunneling effect, are possible nuclear reactions of fusion or transmutation such that solves the central problem of the theory  surpassing of the Coulomb Barrier.
The  given quantitative  calculations of the mini-atoms of hydrogen formed lead to the increase of the extent of earlier considered velocity of nuclear reactions (kirkinskii, Novikov, 2002, 2004)- more tha 5-6 orders of magnitude.
It is important to mention that in our models we have used only generally accepted laws of conservation of energy, impulse moment, quantity of movement, of electrical charges and Coulombic interactions.  This distinguishes our approach from the numerous unfounded hypotheses described in the world literature- not sustained by quantitative calculations.
The theory of cold fusion and transmutation created by us allows us to replace the very ineffective method of trial and error used by other researchers with a targeted search of the means of intensification of the low energy nuclear reactions.
By using an original methodology in scanning calorimetry we have shown experimentally formation of excess energy at  the sorption and desorption of deuterium in fine crystalline palladium- at levels of a few Watts per gram.  (Kirkinskii, Drebushchak, Khmelnikov, 2002). The obtained values are in accordance to those resulted from computer modelling.

We have studied the behaviour of 42 element impurities in palladium under the pressure of gaseous deuterium at  (1÷3)*105 Pа in multiple cycles of heating in the reactor used as thermogenerator ((Kirkinskii. Hmelnikov, Russian Fed. Patent No 2195717),  Kirkinskii, Hmelnikov Europatent EP 142976)
32 grams Pd type "Ch" (?) in form of powder with the dimensions of 20 to 100 nm was exposed to heating up to ~ 500C during time of 30 minutes and then cooled down to 25 C during 40 to 50 minutes. In 15 months there were performed 60 cycles.

The analysis of the samples before and after the whole series of cycles was carried out by atomic emission methods with plasma and electric arc excitation with the measurement of 5 samples of 2 to 3 spectral lines. The content of 15 elements: B, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Rh, Ag changed more than 2-3 times in the samples after the experiments. In all cases, the changes are described by a generalized nuclear reaction: ZMe A + (H2 + e) => zMe A + 2 + e (w).
Te expression (H2 +e) means deuterium mini atom. The energy of reaction -w- was calculated based on the value of mass defect. It is released  In the form of Bremsstrahlung of an electron predominantly in the x-ray range when absorbed by the reacting substances, heat is released. Palladium partially turns into silver, the content of which in the products of the experiment has increased 250 times.
The increase in the silver content by two orders is due to nuclear reactions:
46Pd 105 + (1H2 + e) => 47Ag107 + e (13117.84 keV) and
46Pd 108 + (1H2 + e) => 47Ag110 + e (11068.84 keV).

In addition, one other  possible cause of the formation of silver atoms can be a proton with an energy of ~ 3 MeV, the product of the nuclear fusion reaction: 1H2 + 1H2 => 3H (1.01 MeV) + p (3.02 MeV). The proton released during this reaction when palladium enters the nuclei, due to its high energy, realizes nuclear reactions: Pd 106+ p (3.02 MeV) => Ag107 + e (1.48 MeV) and Pd108 + p (3.02 MeV) => Ag109 + e (2.22 MeV). Another reaction channel for nuclear fusion: 1H2 + 1H2 => He3 (0.82 MeV) + n (3.02 MeV), whose intensity at low energies is 5 to 9 orders of magnitude lower, nevertheless manifests itself in a neutron flux, at two times over the background. Because of the low proportion of palladium atoms undergoing transmutation, which can be judged from the absolute increase in Ag content after the experiments, the change in the Pd isotope composition (Table 3) is lower than the error of the ICP-MS analysis (± 1%).
The energy of nuclear reaction is released preponderantly in form of beta-radiation.
The electrons penetrating the matter are losing energy mainly by ionization, excitations of atoms and braking i.e Bremstrahlung

The loss of energy occurs in every act of interaction with the electrons of atoms and scattering. The main energy of such reactions is released in the form of X-ray radiation, which was repeatedly noted in experimental studies. In those cases where nuclear reactions occur without the release of electrons, direct energy transfer directly to the electronic system of the metal is possible through the so-called internal conversion.
Even at an initial energy of 5-10 MeV, the range of electrons and positrons at a density of nickel or steel does not exceed 1-2 cm. This explains the almost complete absence of hard radiation at a distance of several centimeters from the reactor.

 The content of helium isotopes in products used by us did not allow determination, therefore the contribution of direct nuclear reactions of fusion is unknown. The total energy release due to the transmutation reactions of the elements is of the order of magnitude close to the measured excess energy. For 27 elements in which such a reaction would lead to a decrease in the mass defect: Ca, Ge, As, Se, Y, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Pr, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd , Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta - the did not changes in the composition of elements within the error of analysis (+/- 30%) (Kirkinskii, Hhmelnikov, 2015).

Using theoretical modelling of the nuclear reactions of hydrogen as well as the experimental results have shown that in the core of the Earth and of other planets is taking place nucleosynthesis and transmutation of a series of chemical elements
that is that was considered as possible only a the big Bang and in stars. We were the first to show that such reactions are the source of the high thermal flux coming from the core of Terra, observed by the geophysicists ((Kirkinskii, Novikov, 1997, 2002 , 2003, 2007, 2008, Кirkinski, 2007, 2013, 2015).

.It was created a method and device for obtaining energy from tnuclear reactions via LENR. (patents Kirkinskii 1996. Kirkinskii Hmelnikov 2002, 2006, 2009)  
There were made tests demonstrating excess energy in the system palladium-deuterium up to 600 W at a temperature of 600C with a palladium charge of 32 grams.
By using other metals and intermetalids patented by us, especially LaNi5 - with higher solubility for hydrogen than nickel, will probably allow higher productions of energies than in the patent US 2014/0326711 A1 9obtained by A. Rossi- 5 years later.By understanding the mechanisms of nuclear reactions of nickel and hydrogen, will allow us to find new ways for intensification the nuclear reactions and increasing of the production of energy- and this what I m working on now. 

1. Kirkinskii V.A. 1994. Method and device for producing energy and obtaining tritium, helium and free neutrons. (Способ получения энергии, а также гелия, трития  и свободных нейтронов и устройства для его осуществления). International Patent Application published in the frame of PCT patent cooperation treaty. Number of patent application РСТ/RU93/00174. МКИ G21 B1/00 G21 G4/02. Number of international patent application WO 94/03902. 17.02.94, 30 с.

2. V.A. Kirkinskii, 1996 Patent of the Russian Federation № 2056656 for the invention; " Method of obtaining free neutrons" Published in the " Biuletin ' "zobretenia, tovarnie znaki (inventions, trade marks") March 20 1996, part II pp 267-268

3.  V.A. Kirkinskii, Yu. A. Novikov 1997: Problems of nucleosynthesis in geological processes. In the book " The science about the Earth at the doorstep of the XXI Century, new ideas, approaches, decisions. Moscow. Nauchnyi mir, p 85

4. V. A. Kirkinskii, Yu. A. Novikov:, 1999 Theoretical modelling of the nuclear cold fusion, Novosibirsk, 48 pagess

5. Kirkinskii V. A., Novikov Yu. A.1999.  A new approach to theoretical modeling of nuclear fusion in palladium deuteride. Europhysics Letters,  v. 46, No. 4, pp. 448-453.

6. Kirkinskii V. A., Drebushchak V. A., Khmelnikov A. I. 2002. Excess heat release during deuterium sorption-desorption by finely powdered palladium deuteride. Europhysics Letters, v. 58, No. 3, pp.  462-467.
        7. Kirkinskii V. A., Novikov Yu. A. 2002 . Theoretical modeling of cold fusion. Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk State University,  105 p.
        8. Kirkinskii V.A., Novikov Yu.A. 2002 a, Hydrogen isotopes interaction in crystal substances on results of numerical computation in connection with the problem of natural nucleosynthesis. Experiment in Geosciences, v. 10, No 1, pp. 51-53.

9. V.A. Kirkinskii, A.I. Hmelnikov 2002b Device for obtaining energy Patent of the Russian Federation no. 2195717 Buletin Izobretenia, tovarnie znakino 26

10. Kirkinskii V.A., Novikov Yu.A. 2003.Numerical calculations of cold fusion in metal deuterides. In the book:  "Condensed Matter Nuclear Science", (Proceedings of the ICCF-9, ed. by Xing Z. Li) pp. 162-165,

11. Kirkinskii V. A., Novikov Yu. A. 2003. Fusion reaction probability in iron hydride and the problem of nucleosynthesis in the Earth's interior. In the book: "Condensed Matter Nuclear Science" (Proceedings of the ICCF-9, ed. by Xing Z. Li), 166-169, 2003.

       12. Kirkinskii V. A., Drebushchak V. A., Khmelnikov A.I. 2003 . Experimental evidence of excess heat output during deuterium sorption-desorption in palladium deuteride. In the book: "Condensed Matter Nuclear Science" (Proceedings of the ICCF-9, ed. by Xing Z. Li), , pp. 170-173.  
13. Kirkinskii, V. A., Novikov, Yu. A. 2004. Modelling of dynamic screening effects in solid state.   Europhysics Letters. Vol. 67, N 3, pp 362-367.

14. V.A. Kirkinskii, Yu. A. Novikov, 2006 "Device for obtaining of energy' 
Eurasian patent  №006525 В 1, Int. Class. G21B/00, дата публ. 2006.02.24.

        15. V.A Kirkinskii, V. A., Novikov Yu. A. 2006. Calculation of nuclear reaction 
probability in a crystal lattice of lanthanum deuteride. In the book "Progress in condensed matter nuclear science". Editor A.Takahashi, World Scientific Publ. Co., Proceedings of 12th conference on cold fusion. 
        16. . Goncharov A. I., Kirkinskii V. A. 2006. Theoretical modeling of electron flow action on probability of nuclear fusion of deuterons. In the book "Progress in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science", Editor A.Takahashi. World Scientific Proceedings of 12th conference on cold fusion.

         17. Kirkinskii V. A.,  Novikov Yu.A.. 2006. Calculation of nuclear reaction probabilities in a crystal lattice of titanium deuteride. In the book "Condensed matter nuclear science". Editors: Peter L.Hagelstein and Scott R. Chubb. World Scientific, Proceedings of the ICCF-10, pp. 681-685.

        18. Kirkinskii V. A., Novikov Yu. A. 2006. Calculation of nuclear reaction probability in a crystal lattice of lanthanum deuteride. In the book "Progress in condensed matter nuclear science". Editor A.Takahashi, World Scientific Publ. Co., Proceedings of 12th conference on cold fusion. 

 19.  Kirkinskii V. A. 2008. Estimation of geofusion probability. In the book: Proceedings of the 13-th International Сonference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF 13), Moscow,  p.674 - 678.

 20. Goncharov A. I., Kirkinskii V. A., Samovolik V. V.,. 2008. Calculation of tunneling probability for the strongly screened Coulomb barrier, and check up of the applicability of the WKB approach. Proceedings of the 13-th International Сonference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ( ICCF-13), Moscow, p 650 - 653.
  21. Kirkinskii V. A., Khmelnikov A. I. 2008. Setup for measuring of energy balance at interaction of metals and isotope gas at high temperatures and pressures Proceedings of the 13-th International Сonference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science( ICCF-13), Moscow , p. 43 - 46.

  22. Kirkinskii V. A., Khmelnikov A. I. 2009. Energieеrzeugungseinrichtung (Power Producing Device) Europaische Patentschrift 1 426 976 B1, Int. Cl.G21B 1/00 Publikation Date 23.12.2009, Patentblatt 2009/52.

23. V. A. Kirkinskii. 2009 Nuclear cold fusion: theoretical modelling, experimental confirmation, perspectives of applications. Vestnik Novosibirski Otdelenia Petrovskoi Akademii nauk i iskusstvo. pp 65-77

24. V. A. Kirkinskii 2015 Nuclear reactions of hydrogen in Earth's core. Works of the annual all-Russian seminar for experimental mineralogy, petrology annd geochemistry, Moscow, April 21-22 2015. Redactor A. A. Kadik GEOHI RAN 2015 p 270-275                                   .Труды%20ВЕСЭМПГ-2015.pdf ISBN 976 – 5 – 905049 – 11 – 8.

25. V.A. Kirkinskii, A. I. Goncharov, 2016 Mini-atom of hydrogen, thekey to explaining low energy nuclear reactions. Program and abstracts of the 22th all-Russian conference for the transmutation of the nuclei of chemical elememnts and for ball lightning, p 19

26. V.A. Kirkinskii, A.I. Hmelnikov, 2016: Neutronic and gamma radiations in the deuteronic thermogenarator.  Program and abstracts of the 22th all-Russian conference for the transmutation of the nuclei of chemical elememnts and for ball lightning, p 34.

27. V.A. Kirkinskii, 2015  Experimental proofs of nuclear reactions in the core of Earth. In the book: "Collection of the works of the annual All-Russian seminar for experimental mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry pp 38-39

28. V. A. Kirkinskii, V.N. Hmelnikov. 2016:  Transmutation of the elements in the deuteronic thermogenerator. Program and abstracts of the 22th all-Russian conference for the transmutation of the nuclei of chemical elememnts and for ball lightning, p 116-124

29..  V.A. Kirkinskii, A. I. Hmelnikov, 2016 The measurements results for excess energy in the deuteronic thermogenerator.Program and abstracts of the 22th all-Russian conference for the transmutation of the nuclei of chemical elememnts and for ball lightning, p 106-115

30. V.A. Kirkinskii, 2016 Nuclear reactions of fusion and transmutation in the core of Earth. Program and abstracts of the 22th all-Russian conference for the transmutation of the nuclei of chemical elememnts and for ball lightning, p 124-136.

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